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Key Parts of Immigration Law Rejected; Egypt's New President Gets to Work; What To Expect In Egypt; Cuba's First Tech-Fest
Aired June 25, 2012 - 12:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
SUZANNE MALVEAUX, CNN ANCHOR: Welcome to NEWSROOM INTERNATIONAL, where we will take you around the world in 60 minutes.
We begin Supreme Court ruling on Arizona's tough immigration law. The Supreme Court struck down three key provisions of the law. They include requirements that illegal immigrants carry registration papers, that they'd be ban from soliciting or applying for work, and also provision allowing police to arrest illegal immigrants without warrant.
But the court did uphold a controversial part of the law. If the police have a reasonable suspicion that a person is in the country illegally and the officers are enforcing other laws, they can check a person's immigration status.
Cairo's Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the Egyptian revolution, is returning to normal one day after the country's first ever democratically elected leader was named. The new president-elect, Mohamed Morsi, got straight to work today forming his team.
This was the scene immediately after the announcement that Morsi had won.
Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood supporters are preparing to push Egypt's military rulers now to relinquish now the power to the president.
There is a war of words between Syria and turkey. Syria said today it shot down a Turkish airplane because it flew in the Syrian airspace. But Turkey claims it was down over international waters without warning, after briefly steering into the Syrian air space by mistake. The wreckage was found in the Mediterranean Sea over the weekend and now Turkey is now taking its case to NATO on Tuesday.
Arizona went too far in its efforts to crack down on illegal immigration. That is the decision today from the U.S. Supreme Court. With a 5-3 ruling, the high court rejected parts of the Arizona law. The ruling is one of the last major decisions from the court this term.
Now, the other big decision, on President Obama's health care reform law, that is going to come on Thursday.
Joining us to talk about immigration ruling and what it means are CNN senior legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin, Juan Carlos Lopez of CNN en Espanol, and chief national correspondent John King.
Jeff, first of all, I want to start off with you.
Majority of the court ruled that while, in their word, they have understandable problems caused by illegal immigration while the process continues, but the state may not pursues policies that undermine federal law. So why didn't they strike down the whole thing?
JEFFREY TOOBIN, CNN LEGAL ANALYST: Well, because -- again, this is going to be a difficult area for states to navigate, because the Supreme Court has now said that we are looking very carefully at each and every provision that states pass, and some are going to be OK and some are not going to be OK, and frankly now after having tried just to digest the opinion, the line between the two is not entirely clear to me.
The "show us your papers" provision, the most controversial part of this law, that was the part that was upheld, and what Justice Kennedy said was that this was not a state law that conflicted with federal law, it was a law that complimented federal law. That was a distinction that he drew. Whether that is one that states will be able to learn from, I'm not sure. But starting tomorrow, Arizona is going to be able to enforce that provision and we will see if there are further court challenges to it. There very well might be.
MALVEAUX: And, Jeffrey, a lot of people are looking at this in a kind of divisive way. Some people say that the Obama administration won. Others say it is the state of Arizona.
Do you see winners and losers in this, in this ruling?
TOOBIN: Well, it is very much a mixed verdict. I think that there is much for both sides to take credit for. The Obama administration can say, look, we challenged this law is unconstitutional and significant parts of it were found unconstitutional. We were protecting the rights of the federal government and the rights of minorities.
The state can say, we passed a very significant law that we think will increase the safety and legality of what goes on within its borders, and the key provision was upheld.
I don't think this was a political or legal knockout for either side. I think there's much for both sides to take credit for.
MALVEAUX: And, Jeff, talk about the several states that followed Arizona's lead and you have similar laws being challenged in lower courts. We're talking about Georgia, Alabama, Utah, Indiana and South Carolina -- what happens to those? Are they going to get thrown out?
TOOBIN: Well, what means is legal trench warfare on all these laws. Because of the mixed nature of the verdict, it's not possible to say with certainty that all of these kinds of laws are unconstitutional or that they are all OK.
Just as Justice Kennedy did, federal judges are going to have to go provision by provision to try to apply the provisions that Justice Kennedy established for the court. That is easier said than done. You can be sure that some judges will see it some way, some judges will see it other ways. Those cases will then be appealed to the circuit court of appeals and perhaps back here to the Supreme Court.
So I think that the one thing for sure is that this is an issue that is not settled legally and we are going to see more cases like the Arizona case.
MALVEAUX: One thing for sure, nothing is for sure.
TOOBIN: That's right.
MALVEAUX: All right. Jeffrey, thank you very much.
I want to bring in Juan Carlos Lopez.
So, you and I attended last week, the largest Latino political convention in the country. Many of those people that we talked to, they said they felt like at least the president was headed in the right direction when it comes to immigration policy. Do you think he gets credit now for challenging Arizona's tough immigration policy?
JUAN CARLOS LOPEZ, CNN EN ESPANOL: Well, it's 5-3 ruling, Suzanne, and first, I guess the argument that the government made before the Supreme Court was that the federal government preempts states. And in that case, the court said you're right now. But now, we go into the show me your papers clause and that is going to scare people, and especially Latinos -- especially Latinos in Arizona.
But the interesting thing is that yes, a police officer can inquire about a person's immigration status if they have reasonable suspicion to believe they are in the country illegally. They can detain them. They can refer them to immigration authorities. But they can't deport them.
So, this really doesn't solve the issue. It will be a mixed verdict, as Jeffrey said, and people will se that there was a ruling that backs the government's argument, but not many were satisfied when the arguments made by the government at the Supreme Court circled on the right to the federal government and the power of the federal government and not on civil rights where many believe this issue is now and is going to be heading now.
MALVEAUX: You and I have both had the chance to go to Maricopa County, Arizona, had a chance to talk to Sheriff Joe Arpaio there. He was unapologetic about aggressively going after illegal immigrants even in the face of many residents who said, look, saying we are being racially profiled here. Is there a sense of disappointment that that one clause that did survive was the one that many Hispanics felt opened the door to racial profiling?
LOPEZ: There could be, but we have to see what's going to happen now, and going back to the point of what is reasonable suspicion? How are they going to define it? How are they going to -- what do they do with these folks? And even if they detain them, they have to refer them to the federal authorities and it's up to the federal authorities whether to deport them or not.
So, it's still a catch-22 in this case, but it is very important as Jeffrey Toobin said it -- starting tomorrow, Arizona can enforce the provision, and it is obviously going to impact a lot of people.
MALVEAUX: The folks that you talk, do they think that that Obama administration made a mistake not taking it on as a civil rights case?
LOPEZ: In the beginning they did. That's the line they went down. They said it was a civil rights issue when they didn't take that position. But there are other lawsuits already, through the legal process, other lawsuits that are addressing this issue. So, this isn't over. We're going to see this going on for a long time.
At least now, part of the most controversial measures can not be enforced and the most controversial can. But that's what the courts are there for.
MALVEAUX: All right. Juan Carlos, thank you -- sorting it out for us.
I want to bring in John King.
So, we've already heard from Arizona's governor, Jan Brewer, who put out a statement. I'm just going to read it very briefly. She says, "Today's decision by the U.S. Supreme Court is a victory for the rule of law. It is also a victory for the 10th Amendment, and all Americans who believe in the inherent right and responsibility of states to defend their citizens. After more than two years of legal challenges, the heart of SB 1070 can now be implemented in according with the U.S. Constitution."
So, John, if you were advising the president, perhaps you were trying to read the tea leaves, would he come out? Should he come out and make a statement today, an equally powerful statement on his behalf?
JOHN KING, CNN CHIEF NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: I think we'll hear both from the president. We're already getting a statement from Governor Romney. I think we'll hear careful statements from them, Suzanne, because they understand the complexities of the issues.
For the president of the United States, you mentioned his speech at the NALEO conference last week. Look, he got two-thirds of the Latino vote in the last election. He wants to match that numbers in this election. And if he does, there's every reason to believe that he'll be well on his way to a second term.
It's a problem for Governor Romney. He has a crisis among Latino voters right now.
So, what happened? The administration did win, as you noted, three of the four contested provisions tossed out. The Supreme Court saying that in most issues, it's the federal government's job to set and implement and enforce immigration policy.
But the court left open this big question of show me your papers. And as the state implements it, as Jeffrey noted and Juan Carlos noted, this will be back into court most likely within months. Somebody will get arrested. Somebody will be detained in a way they find offensive and they will be challenged it again.
But as we go forward, we'll have to watch that one play out. So, let me read you a little bit of Governor Romney's statement, because it shows you the box he's in.
He criticizes the president. It "underscores the need for a president who will lead on this critical issue and work in a bipartisan fashion to pursue a national immigration strategy. President Obama has failed to provide any leadership on immigration. This represents yet another broken promise by this president." Notice the theme.
"I believe that each state has the duty and the right to secure our borders and preserve the rule of law, particularly when the federal government has failed to meet its responsibilities. As candidate Obama, he promised to the present an immigration plan during this first year in office. But four years later, we are still waiting."
So, most of that, Suzanne, a criticism of the president saying, you haven't kept your promise and because there is no national policy, that's why you have the state by state hodgepodge.
But on that point where he says, "Every state has the duty and the right to secure our borders and preserve the rule of law," Supreme Court said, no, that part, the secure our borders part is a federal responsibility. The governor is going to be in Arizona today. This is the paper statement released by the campaign -- fascinating as he tries to get the Latino votes without alienating his conservative base. Love to hear him say more on this.
MALVEAUX: Yes, I think we'll be hearing a lot more on this from both candidates. Thank you, John.
The Supreme Court has also ruled on two other key cases. Justices reaffirmed their controversial decision two years ago, allowing corporations to spend freely on federal election. In short, they said the decision, the Citizens United case also applies to state campaign finance laws.
Another ruling today, the high court said that it is unconstitutional to sentence juveniles to life in prison without parole for murder. The court previously ruled that juveniles could be sentence to death or life without parole and crimes that did not involved killing.
Here's more of what we are working on for this hour of NEWSROOM INTERNATIONAL:
Some are calling this an act of war. So, what happens now after Syria shoots down a Turkish jet?
And later, they've got a new leader and a long road ahead. I'm going to talk to Jimmy Carter's grandson about what he saw in Egypt and what he thinks in store for the country with the largest population in the Arab world.
MALVEAUX: Welcome back to NEWSROOM INTERNATIONAL, where we take you around the world in 60 minutes.
Right now to Egypt, the country's new Islamist president-elect, Mohamed Morsi, is getting straight to work. Morsi was once a political prisoner. But today, he moved into the presidential office last occupied by Hosni Mubarak.
Ben Wedeman, he's joining us by phone from Cairo.
Ben, first of all, you've got to admit his challenges are great, immense, and he is now facing military generals who have essentially stripped him of much of his power and now re-imposed martial law. So, where does he even start?
BEN WEDEMAN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (via telephone): Well, he starts by putting together a cabinet, and we know that he has pledged to get a, as inclusive as possible cabinet together. He said he wants to include technocrats, Christians, women, youths from the revolutionary movement, and at the same time, he is distancing himself from the Muslim Brotherhood and its political wing the Freedom and Justice Party.
So, he has officially resigned from both of those organizations, and as you mentioned, he is in the presidential offices and recently just 16 months ago vacated by Hosni Mubarak.
But obviously, his powers are severely limited and these powers were limited by a decree from the supreme council of the armed forces, issued within hours of the closing of the voting stations the night of the, following the last night of the runoff elections -- Suzanne.
MALVEAUX: So, Ben, do most of the people there support him, even if they did not back the Muslim Brotherhood? Are the people getting behind him as their new leader?
WEDEMAN: Well, certainly, what we have seen is an outpouring of celebration. I think celebration is not necessarily because he is Mohamed Morsi of the Islam Brotherhood. He's in fact not a charismatic figure. But I think Egyptians do appreciate the fact that they have finally a president or president-elect who was not formally an officer in the Egyptian army.
But if you look at the numbers, he really doesn't have anything to approximate a mandate. Only 50 percent of eligible voters participated in the election, and only half of them or just a hair of beyond that voted for Mohamed Morsi.
So, really, he only has the support or the votes of a quarter of the Egyptian electorate. But many people have said that whether they like him or not, he's the president-elect, and they will respect him as such -- Suzanne.
MALVEAUX: And, Ben, lastly, what is it like on the streets of Cairo now? Is it relatively calm?
WEDEMAN: Yes, it's very calm. I can tell you that, you know, the tension that has been building up in Cairo over the last weeks and the real worry that there could be violence after the announcement of the results has dissipated like fog burnt by the morning sun. It really is, you do feel a great sense of relief going down the streets of Cairo.
Even those who don't care for the Muslim Brotherhood, don't like Mohamed Morsi, do feel like the level of tension has dramatically evaporated. There are more people on the streets, more cars, the Cairo traffic jams are once more in full bloom.
MALVEAUX: All right. Ben, thank you very much. Thank you, Ben Wedeman.
Later this hour, we will be joined by President Carter's grandson, Jason Carter. He was in Egypt for the runoff election. He's going to give us his thoughts about the road ahead for Egypt.
And people of Turkey, they are living in a tough neighborhood right now. There are refugees spilling across their border and one of their own fighter jets were shot down. And now, foreign soldiers are coming to them in droves to try to escape the bloodshed in Syria.
MALVEAUX: They were once friends but now Syria and Turkey are enemies. As you can see in the map, the countries share a vast border. Thirty thousand refugees have spilled into Turkey, fleeing the violence in Syria.
Not only that, dozens of Syrian soldiers are now defecting to Turkey. Adding to the tensions, this latest event, Syria shot down a Turkish warplane.
Now, Turkey says that the plane was unarmed and brought down over international waters. But just today, the Syrian official insisted the shooting was justified because the plane had crossed into Syrian air space. Take a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
JIHAD MAKDISSI, SYRIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN (through translator): Regardless of whether it's a training mission or reconnaissance mission, it was a violation, and Syria was acting in self-defense. There is a campaign against Syria, and they want to make a devil out of Syria, and whenever they fail, they come up with other evil methods do it.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: Hala Gorani, she is joining us now.
Hala, so let's talk a little bit about this, first of all, just to give a sense of what this entails. It's a border of like 545 miles between these two, and Turkey is a member of NATO. So they could always invoke and say, look, if we are threatened, then everybody else has to come to our defense, I imagine that Turkey doesn't want to escalate it to that point?
HALA GORANI, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR AND CORRESPONDENT: And neither does Syria apparently, although we are hearing from the Syrian foreign ministry spokesperson some heated rhetoric there.
But let's just put this in context. I mean, here you have two neighbors, Turkey and Syria. I mean, imaging a European context for instance something like this happening, where one country shoots down a jet from another country, one country, Turkey, in this case, saying, look, the jet strayed into the Syrian air space, there was no intention of doing anything wrong. It was not an act of aggression, and we heard there from Makdissi, the Syrian foreign ministry spokesperson saying essentially that we had the right to shoot it down.
Another thing he said about the Turkish foreign ministry statement that this reconnaissance jet simply strayed into the Syrian air space was it was all lies what the Turkish foreign ministry was saying. It is actually a clear aggression by Turkey on the Syrian air space.
MALVEAUX: So, what happens next?
GORANI: So, here's what happens next. Tomorrow, we have consultations among NATO members that Turkey has called for. This is Article IV of the NATO charter. What they are not doing though is invoking Article V. And it's an important distinction because that would declare that an attack against any NATO member is an attack against all NATO members. And this is not what is happening.
So, these consultations are going to take place. It is a serious incident. It certainly is escalating the situation, but we are not crossing into the dangerous territory yet.
MALVEAUX: So, tell us what that means, when you don't have. It's not just civilians, but this is the military. You're talking about dozens of generals and soldiers and their families, they're all coming now to Turkey. That was a turning point for Libya when you actually saw the military defecting.
Is this a turning point now for Syria now do you think?
GORANI: Well, you know, it depends who you ask. It doesn't seem as though the number of defections are creating a scenario, a Libyan-style scenario in which you could say with confidence that this is a turning point, though you have some high-ranking army and military officers. You have two colonels, one general.
Our viewers might remember last week in Syrian air force pilot defected to Jordan last.
But it's not the kind of numbers that we saw in Libya where you also will remember in Libya, it wasn't just the military, it was high level political defections. That we are not seeing in Syria.
So, it is a turning point? My guess is no. Will it become a turning point if the numbers increase? Then at that point, perhaps we can talk about something more significant.
MALVEAUX: Is it overstating to say that their enemies now Turkey and Syrians, because you do have Turkey at least arming some of its position on the Syrian side?
GORANI: It is denying that it is doing so, but we are hearing from the multiple reports that Turkey is turning a blind eye to armed shipments going into Syria. There are reports that Saudi Arabia and Qatar, as well, important American allies, by the way, are also arming Syria -- though there is no official recognition that this is happening. But on the ground many eyewitnesses are saying, arms are flowing into Syria to help the rebels.
MALVEAUX: All right. Boy, a messy situation. Hala, thank you. Appreciate it.
So, what are the Latinos saying about the landmark ruling from the Supreme Court today? We're going to find out.
MALVEAUX: I want to jump into the big story today.
Supreme Court ruled this morning that Arizona went too far in its effort to crackdown on illegal immigration. It was a 5-3 ruling. The high court rejected key parts of the Arizona law.
I want to bring in Arturo Vargas into the conversation. He is the executive director of the National Association of Latino Elected Officials. He is in Los Angeles. And, Arturo, you and I had a chance to speak last week together at that conference, the largest gathering of Latino politicians in country.
ARTURO VARGAS, NALEO (via telephone): Well, we actually are quite heartened by the court's decision to uphold the Constitution and to indicate that the state of Arizona indeed exceeded its bounds in trying to set up its own immigration system and preempt the federal government's responsibility. What I think this underscores is much more what we heard from Governor Romney last Thursday at the NALEO conference that in fact the immigration system is broken and that was reiterated by President Obama on Friday.
So I think that now it goes back to Congress and the administration. We need to fix this broken immigration system and not have states try to implement 50 different versions of immigration law.
MALVEAUX: And how do you do that? What is the main thing that needs to happen next?
VARGAS: Well, I think that this is the opportunity for leadership on both sides of the aisle to demonstrate bipartisan action on behalf of the people of the country. We have an immigration system that is broken. We know that now that certain actions that states would like to take are preempted by the Constitution. The Supreme Court has spoken on that.
So, I think there are some guidelines here as to what cannot be done at the state level, and what we need to do is to have a system of immigration that works in this country, that regulates the flow of immigrants in a way that meets the needs of the country to keep families together and does not encourage discriminatory actions of law enforcement and other government agencies at the state or local level.
MALVEAUX: Do you believe that the "show me your papers", and that particular provision still holds? Do you believe it was a real loss here?
VARGAS: It was a loss in the sense that this now goes back to the district court for further interpretation by the Arizona courts as to what exactly was meant on behalf of the legislature with this. Our concern of course is that, you know, who gets to -- who is required to show papers? Is it a person who like me who has brown skin, simply because of my ethnic heritage, that I am become suspect, has been an undocumented immigrant by virtue of what I look like?
That is what I think all of us fear the most, that U.S. citizens and legal residents are treated differently by virtue of the color of our skin, the accent on our tongue, and that is truly fundamentally un-American.
MALVEAUX: All right. Arturo, good to speak to you again. We will speak with you shortly. Thank you.
Immigration is not the only story this week for many Mexican- Americans. They are also watching an important vote in Mexico, where Mexicans will pick their new president.
Miguel Marquez explains why.
MIGUEL MARQUEZ, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): I am the 1/32, a rallying cry growing louder for young people here tired of politics as usual. What started as a student protest is becoming a movement focused on the presidential election and beyond.
(on camera): How important is this election?
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It is very important. It can give us real change to give us freedom to go out to the streets and don't be afraid.
MARQUEZ: Their fear democratic progress will be stopped, even reversed if the dominant PRI party led by its telegenic candidate, Enrique Pena Nieto, returns to power. They deeply believe that the PRI and Mexico's biggest TV broadcasters are in cahoots.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We have elections, yes, and we vote, yes, but the power -- the factual power is controlled by the media.
MARQUEZ (voice-over): Televisa and Azteca control more than 90 percent of the market here in a country where the vast majority of people still get their news and information through broadcast television.
MARQUEZ: Some people say this is a new beginning for Mexico, but 1,000 people have shown up here in front of Televisa, one of the big broadcasters in Mexico, and despite a very heavy rain, no one is going anywhere.
MARQUEZ (voice-over): This young movement even brought its own version of the televised truth, projecting it on Televisa's wall. The 41/2-minute video called "Lux" or "Light 132" chronicles what these students say is media and government collusion to hide the truth over the years. It starts with the massacre of dozens of democracy protesters in 1968.
Playing prominently in the video is PRI candidate Pena Nieto. He dismisses the protests as little more than politics, saying he has more young followers than any other candidate, and that Mexicans need not worry about his commitment to democracy.
"Mexico has changed," he says. "We have respect for democracy and democratic culture."
Still, protesters say Televisa and Azteca have showered his campaign with favorable coverage. The broadcasters deny it, saying that each candidate has been given equal time.
The protesters say this goes beyond equal time.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It must happen in every generation, every young (ph) generation, and this has just turned everyone, like woke up a lot of people.
MARQUEZ (voice-over): Young people here waking up, calling for more openness, more freedom of opinion and debate in television coverage, more democracy. It is a struggle, they say, that's only beginning -- Miguel Marquez, Mexico City.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: Immigration is not just a problem here in the United States. We will take you the Israel where thousands of African immigrants could be sent packing home.
(COMMERCIAL BREAK) MALVEAUX: We are getting this in. President Obama reacting to the Supreme Court's decision there regarding the Arizona immigration law. He says, "I'm pleased that the Supreme Court has struck down key provisions of the Arizona immigration law. What this decision makes unmistakably clear is that Congress must act on comprehensive immigration reform.
"A patchwork of state laws is not a solution to our broken immigration system -- it's part of the problem."
The president weighing in on this controversial ruling.
Immigration is also a big issue right now in Israel. The country has been rounding up illegal immigrants, who some officials call infiltrators and cancers, and they are sending them back to Africa.
Authorities say some 60,000 people have entered Israel since 2005. They are crossing its southern border with Egypt. Many of the immigrants are fleeing violence in Sudan and South Sudan or economic and political hard times in Eritrea.
Elise Labott, she takes a look.
ELISE LABOTT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): From his shop in South Tel Aviv, Gabriut Telchat offers a taste of the familiar to fellow Eritreans far from home.
GABRIUT TELCHAT, ERITREAN LIVING IN ISRAEL: When they come here and they know that specific thing which is belonged to them would be here in shop, and all of the Israeli markets and shops, you cannot find this.
LABOTT: you cannot find this stuff you have back home, and here they can come. They can feel at home.
LABOTT (voice-over): He is part businessman, part activist, a voice for some of the 30,000 Eritreans who have migrated to Israel over recent years. Many now live under temporary protection status because of political repression in Eritrea.
But the Israeli government is now moving to deport tens of thousands of African migrants who are in the country illegally and Israel's interior minister says he is looking for ways to send the Eritreans home as well.
TELCHAT: No one knows what will happen tomorrow for him. That is the main problem, you know. For sure, people are living in a big fear.
LABOTT(voice-over): Telchat arrived in Israel five years ago, smuggled through Sudan and then Egypt, after being imprisoned back home for criticizing the government as a student.
TELCHAT: I just decided to come to Israel, because the politics like in my heart (ph) country, I can be protected, and to have been safe. Because of that I am now just safe to come here.
LABOTT(voice-over): He has built a comfortable life here for his wife, Attu (ph), and infant son. But it is a life overshadowed by the fear of deportation and what might await him at home.
TELCHAT: I think it is very -- it is the worst, either to be killed or thrown away to the prison.
LABOTT(voice-over): Still, he dreams of the day he can go back to a free country.
TELCHAST: There is no safety better than home. That is why even, as far as any solution there, I don't have an option, but when this happens, I want to be at my home.
LABOTT(voice-over): These illegal migrants had no option. They are among the latest to be deported.
Ali, who is from war-torn Darfur, fears he may be next, even though for now he has legal status.
ALI ISMAIL ABDKRIM, SUDANESE LIVING IN ISRAEL: I am worried. I cannot sleep in the night, because what I see is happy now .
LAVIN (voice-over): He arrived in Israel six years ago. Now he works two jobs to support his daughter, Heba (ph).
ABDKRIM: She is a girl, you know, she have -- I don't know what it is really like to grow up before the time.
LABOTT(voice-over): He tries to shield her from negative comments they've heard from some government officials and from people they pass on the streets.
ABDKRIM: They say like Sudan is like a cancer and really hard for hear things like that.
LABOTT(voice-over): He wants better for his daughter, and he dreams of finishing his education and remarrying.
ABDKRIM: I want my life different, and like my grandfather and my parents. What I see all now, I'm realizing I am doing all right, but I must continue.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: Elise joins us live from Jerusalem, Elise, tell us a little bit about this, because I know that African immigrants, they are very emotional about this. This is, as we see in your piece, this is a very different situation for them, but many Israelis as well, when they think of rounding up folks and mass detentions, I mean, they are having a hard time with this as well.
Tell us how the government is responding.
LABOTT: Suzanne, it really cuts close to the bone, both for the migrants, some of them who were crying in the interviews, but also to Israelis.
This is a nation built on immigrants and also Jews and Israelis have been persecuted, really ostracized for years and a lot of Israelis think that maybe the country -- should be helping these people and have more of a collective consciousness, but the government is really unapologetic, saying, listen, we just can't handle this.
This is an economic situation, but some people feel this really threatens the character of the Jewish state and they don't want them here.
MALVEAUX: And Russian president Vladimir Putin, he is there, visiting with Israeli officials. What is on the agenda?
LABOTT: Well, this is a perfect example, there are more than 1 million Russian-speaking immigrants here in Israel, and Russian President Putin thinks a lot of them are still Russian. He said just moments ago that maybe they would go back home some day.
But Iran and Syria are really the issue for these two for when he met with President Peres, and Prime Minister Netanyahu. Israel's looking for Russia to use its influence with Syria, with Bashar al- Assad, to step down and move towards a political transition.
And on Iran, they really want Russia to use their influence with Iran to accept this international deal to get rid of its highly enriched uranium and make a deal with the West so that Israel won't have to make a military strike. President Putin was really noncommittal. He acknowledged that there is a lot of security concerns that the two of them have to talk about, but really gave no commitment, Suzanne.
MALVEAUX: All right. Thank you, Elise.
Talking about a not-so-subtle message, war games with a North Korean flag on the battlefield.
MALVEAUX: Welcome back to "Newsroom International," where we take you around the world in 60 minutes.
North Korea has slammed South Korea and the U.S. for using its flag during live fire drills. The South Korean official says the flag was put on an elevated hill but was not directly targeted by the live bullets and shells. These drills were part of a military exercise last week. Both countries are concerned about North Korea's nuclear program.
And Egypt's next step in democracy begins today. The country's first-ever democratically elected leader, Mohammed Morsi is forming his team one day after military rulers announced that the Islamist candidate had won the presidency.
The Carter Center monitored both rounds of elections in Egypt. President Carter, he was there himself at last month's vote. His oldest grandson, Jason Carter, he was there for the latest runoff election.
And Jason Carter, he is joining us now.
It is a pleasure to talk to you. We talked to your grandfather just last week.
JASON CARTER, THE CARTER CENTER: Pleasure.
MALVEAUX: Both of you were there in Egypt, and since the election, we have got the winner here; the military is still very much in power. How do you see this playing out?
CARTER: Well, the most important thing about this election that we observed being there was that the political context in which it occurred outweighed almost the actual conduct of the election. I mean, as you know, we are now faced with a democratically elected president, but the military rulers have dissolved the parliament, they have limited the powers of the president, they're reinstituted aspects of martial law. So that process and those actions that are frankly undemocratic have cast great uncertainty over where we go from here.
MALVEAUX: Do you have any suggestions in terms of where we go from here, because it does look like a situation that is, quite frankly, out of our control and really part of the Egyptian's control? I mean the military.
CARTER: Well, there's no doubt, I think, that outsiders can't push Egypt. I mean the outcome and the steps that take place from here on are going to have to be determined by the Egyptian people. They've decided. They've embraced democracy and demonstrated their democratic spirit. I mean they've been to the polls five times in the last 16 months. So they are going to demand democracy. The most important aspect of the transition that us outsiders can control or look at is how they get to their constitution that's going to be the foundation for a democratic Egypt. That's the key process.
MALVEAUX: Now, so far Morsi has said he's calling for unity. He says he's going to uphold the treaties between Egypt and Israel. And it was just last week your grandfather, who said that he believes, because he knows Morsi well, that Morsi will be good for the country. I want to play a little bit of our phone conversation.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
JIMMY CARTER, FORMER U.S. PRESIDENT (voice-over): The international community will rally to support democracy and freedom in Egypt. Then, yes, I think the military will have to back down. But it's going to have to be a strong statement made from the United States once the identity of the president is known, because of who it is, that the military must seed (ph) power, give up power, to the elected official, otherwise the entire process, I think, is going to be disapproved by not only the international community, but also by the people of Egypt. And it might even go back to demonstrations, including violence. I hope that doesn't happen. (END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: So he hopes that doesn't happen. Edward Walker, he was a former U.S. ambassador to Egypt, he told our Candy Crowley over the weekend that he has some doubts in terms of whether or not Morsi really is going to be good for peace and stability in the country. I want you to listen to that very quickly.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
EDWARD WALKER, FORMER U.S. AMBASSADOR TO EGYPT: This is the real problem of this election. No matter whose name goes up there, does either man have the ability to lead the country? And I would say that the answer is no.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: What do you think?
CARTER: Well, I think that, again, you know, you have a situation in Egypt now where the Egyptian people have embraced democracy. We don't know what that means yet, and we obviously can hold -- as an international community can hold President Morsi and others to those democratic principles of freedom of religion, of women's rights, of all of the things that we all believe need to hold firm. And that's what I think my grandfather was saying.
Are they confronted with difficulties? Absolutely. You know, there's economic issues. There's a divided country. But I believe that if we continue to put the pressure and ensure that this democratic transition takes its steps, as halting as they may be, we're going to get to a better place. And again, you know, sometimes in a democracy, the results are -- are troubling or surprising. But that's what democracy is about.
MALVEAUX: Do you think it changes the identity of Egypt, the fact that now you have -- you go from something that is secular to Islamist and you've got, you know, 10 million Christians who are living in that country, the issue of women's rights that's still unanswered?
CARTER: Well, I think, you know, importantly, there doesn't appear to be an Islamist mandate out of this election. I mean the Muslim Brotherhood got 26 percent of the vote in the first round of the presidential election, and what we saw was a huge number of people choosing, as you said, sort of between, were they more secular or more democratic. And I think that people -- many of those people who would be secular democrats and not Islamists threw some support to Morsi. So he recognizes, I think, that he has a coalition that's made up of Islamists and seculars. And I think he's going to try to bring those people together.
MALVEAUX: I want you to see -- I asked your grandfather about a year ago what his legacy would be. He says he's in a very good place. He's doing a lot of fun things. I want you to listen to what he said. CARTER: I'd like that.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
JIMMY CARTER, FORMER U.S. PRESIDENT: The best times of my life have been the last 30 years since I left the White House. I enjoyed being president. I wish I could have been re-elected to a second term. But I think that the experiences that I've had since then have been the most gratifying and the most challenging and most adventurous and the most unpredictable in my life.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MALVEAUX: He told us he was hunting and fly fishing and a whole bunch of other things. What do you think of your grandfather's legacy?
CARTER: He -- first of all, he really is enjoying himself now, as you can tell.
MALVEAUX: He is.
CARTER: I think he kind of thinks that losing the election was a promotion. You know, he loves the Carter Center and what he's able to do there. And, you know, that legacy of health and peace that the Carter Center is continuing to promote will undeniably live on after he's gone.
MALVEAUX: Yes. He's a busy man.
CARTER: He -- his schedule -- you should see his staff get worn out. He has to rotate through them because his pace is so fast. So, no, he's great.
MALVEAUX: All right. Well, you're following his in footsteps. We appreciate you. Thank you very much.
CARTER: Likewise. Thanks for having me.
MALVEAUX: Well, imagine training your whole life for the Olympics and then having a coin toss decide whether you get to compete in the summer games. Well, that could be the brutal reality for two of America's fastest women.
MALVEAUX: A coin toss, believe it or not, could decide who actually gets to compete in the U.S. Olympic track team. Well, here's why. These two sprinters crossed the finish line at exactly the same time at Olympic trials. That happened in Oregon on Saturday. So now they're both vying for the third spot on the team. The U.S. Olympic Committee had to come up with new rules to resolve this dead heat. One of them, one of the runners, they could choose not to take the spot. Well, that's not likely. That's not going to happen. The other two options, well, they can run a tie-breaking race or leave it up to a coin toss. Hard to believe. They can't drive, vote or run for public office, but female athletes from Saudi Arabia, they're going to be able to compete in the Olympics for the first time. The Saudi embassy did not say what prompted the decision, which was announced yesterday, but the International Olympic Committee had been pushing for this change. Two other holdouts, Brunei and Qatar, announcing earlier this year that they are allowing women to compete starting with the London games. Good for them.
Imagine a world without FaceBook. That is the reality for the vast majority of Cubans. But now social media is slowly making its way to the island nation. We'll take a look.
MALVEAUX: All right. You think your phone bill is high. Well, what about a dollar for a single tweet. That's right. That is how much it can cost in Cuba, which is more than what some Cubans actually make in a day. And according to CBS, less than 2 percent of the island's population uses the Internet. That is the lowest rate in the western hemisphere. Some are trying to change all that, of course. Our Patrick Oppmann, he's got the story.
PATRICK OPPMANN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): At this small house hosting Cuba's first independent tech festival, people who cannot find a seat watch from doorways and windows. It's been dubbed "the click festival." The event, organizers say, is dedicated to helping Cubans get online. An arduous journey in a country where Internet is scarce, slow and requires government approval. Which means participants may talk about FaceBook and Twitter, but there is no Internet available here. The event is not intended to provoke authorities, says well-known blogger and government critic Yoani Sanchez.
YOANI SANCHEZ, CUBAN BLOGGER (through translator): The click festival goes beyond just the festival for blogs or for Twitter or for mobile phones or for text messaging. We want to talk about all kinds of technology, and we want to be inclusive.
OPPMANN: Maybe so, but even before the event began, Cuban state media denounced organizers for, quote, "subversion." A charge that festival participants denied.
ELIECER AVILA, FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT (through translator): Twitter or the Internet is not a privilege just for people in developed countries. They are developed countries because they have these kinds of tools.
OPPMANN: But they can be expensive tools.
OPPMANN (on camera): Participants are learning alternative ways to get online, like using SMS messages from a cell phone to send tweets. But just one tweet from a cell phone here can cost about $1, or more than what many Cubans make in a day. OPPMANN (voice-over): At a government run computing center for young people, one of 600 across the island, Cubans use computers mainly to visit state-run websites. Restrictions on Internet use in Cuba, officials say, are the fault of the five decades' old U.S. trade embargo.
RAUL VAN TROI NAVARRO MARTINEZ, CUBAN YOUTH COMPUTING CLUB (through translator): We need to create more infrastructure. And one of the key things is the removal of the embargo so we can join the world of technology and information.
OPPMANN: Cuba's government says participants of the click festival are agents of foreign governments trying to stir up trouble. Despite their outlaw status, however, these techies say they are hopeful for the future.
ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, EVENT ORGANIZER (through translator): Cubans devise solutions to receive information and send information. They have their blogs, maybe not in the same way that they do in other parts of the world, but people have them. The road will open up, but you have to push forward to open.
OPPMANN: Pushing so that perhaps the next time they hold a tech festival they actually will have access to technology.
Patrick Oppmann, CNN, Havana.
MALVEAUX: Several stories caught our attention today. Photos as well. We want you to take a look. This is Lonesome George. He is the last giant tortoise of his kind. Unfortunately he died yesterday. He was the face of endangered species of the Galapagos Islands off Ecuador. He was about 100 years old.
Now to Jerusalem with thousands of ultra-orthodox Jewish boys and men protested against a court ruling that will force them to serve in the military. It was decided that their previous exemption from mandatory military service was unconstitutional.